BIPs bitcoin improvement proposals

musig() Descriptor Key Expression

  BIP: 390 source
  Layer: Applications
  Title: musig() Descriptor Key Expression
  Author: Ava Chow <me@achow101.com>
  Comments-Summary: No comments yet.
  Comments-URI: https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/wiki/Comments:BIP-0390
  Status: Draft
  Type: Informational
  Created: 2024-01-15
  License: CC0-1.0

Table of Contents

Abstract

This document specifies a musig() key expression for output script descriptors. musig() expressions take multiple keys and produce an aggregate public key using BIP 327.

Copyright

This BIP is licensed under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal license.

Motivation

BIP 327 introduces the MuSig2 Multi-Signature scheme. It is useful to have a way for keys to be used in a MuSig2 aggregate key to be expressed in descriptors so that wallets can more easily use MuSig2.

Specification

A new key expression is defined: musig().

musig(KEY, KEY, ..., KEY)

The musig(KEY, KEY, ..., KEY) expression can only be used inside of a tr() expression as a key expression. It additionally cannot be nested within another musig() expression. Repeated participant public keys are not allowed. The aggregate public key is produced by using the KeyAgg algorithm on all KEYs specified in the expression after performing all specified derivation. As with script expressions, KEY can contain child derivation specified by /*. A new aggregate public key will be computed for each child index. Keys must be sorted with the KeySort algorithm after all derivation and prior to aggregation[1].

musig(KEY, KEY, ..., KEY)/NUM/.../*

musig(KEY, KEY, ..., KEY)/NUM/.../* expressions are also allowed, with the same usage restrictions as in the previous section. The aggregate public key is first computed as described above, with the keys also being sorted after all derivation and prior to aggreation. Then further BIP 32 derivation will be performed on the aggregate public key as described in BIP 328. As there is no aggregate private key, only unhardened derivation from the aggregate public key is allowed, and thus the derivation steps following the musig() expression cannot contain /NUMh or /NUM' derivation steps nor /*h, or /*' child derivation. For these musig() expressions, the KEY expressions contained within must be xpubs or derived from xpubs, and cannot contain child derivation as specified by a /*, /*', or /*h.

Test Vectors

Valid descriptors containing followed by the scripts they produce. Descriptors involving derived child keys will have the 0th, 1st, and 2nd scripts listed.

  • rawtr(musig(KwDiBf89QgGbjEhKnhXJuH7LrciVrZi3qYjgd9M7rFU74sHUHy8S,03dff1d77f2a671c5f36183726db2341be58feae1da2deced843240f7b502ba659,023590a94e768f8e1815c2f24b4d80a8e3149316c3518ce7b7ad338368d038ca66))
    • 5120789d937bade6673538f3e28d8368dda4d0512f94da44cf477a505716d26a1575
  • tr(musig(02f9308a019258c31049344f85f89d5229b531c845836f99b08601f113bce036f9,03dff1d77f2a671c5f36183726db2341be58feae1da2deced843240f7b502ba659,023590a94e768f8e1815c2f24b4d80a8e3149316c3518ce7b7ad338368d038ca66))
    • 512079e6c3e628c9bfbce91de6b7fb28e2aec7713d377cf260ab599dcbc40e542312
  • rawtr(musig(xpub6ERApfZwUNrhLCkDtcHTcxd75RbzS1ed54G1LkBUHQVHQKqhMkhgbmJbZRkrgZw4koxb5JaHWkY4ALHY2grBGRjaDMzQLcgJvLJuZZvRcEL,xpub68NZiKmJWnxxS6aaHmn81bvJeTESw724CRDs6HbuccFQN9Ku14VQrADWgqbhhTHBaohPX4CjNLf9fq9MYo6oDaPPLPxSb7gwQN3ih19Zm4Y)/0/*)
    • 51209508c08832f3bb9d5e8baf8cb5cfa3669902e2f2da19acea63ff47b93faa9bfc
    • 51205ca1102663025a83dd9b5dbc214762c5a6309af00d48167d2d6483808525a298
    • 51207dbed1b89c338df6a1ae137f133a19cae6e03d481196ee6f1a5c7d1aeb56b166
  • tr(musig(xpub6ERApfZwUNrhLCkDtcHTcxd75RbzS1ed54G1LkBUHQVHQKqhMkhgbmJbZRkrgZw4koxb5JaHWkY4ALHY2grBGRjaDMzQLcgJvLJuZZvRcEL,xpub68NZiKmJWnxxS6aaHmn81bvJeTESw724CRDs6HbuccFQN9Ku14VQrADWgqbhhTHBaohPX4CjNLf9fq9MYo6oDaPPLPxSb7gwQN3ih19Zm4Y)/0/*,pk(f9308a019258c31049344f85f89d5229b531c845836f99b08601f113bce036f9))
    • 51201d377b637b5c73f670f5c8a96a2c0bb0d1a682a1fca6aba91fe673501a189782
    • 51208950c83b117a6c208d5205ffefcf75b187b32512eb7f0d8577db8d9102833036
    • 5120a49a477c61df73691b77fcd563a80a15ea67bb9c75470310ce5c0f25918db60d
  • tr(f9308a019258c31049344f85f89d5229b531c845836f99b08601f113bce036f9,pk(musig(xpub6ERApfZwUNrhLCkDtcHTcxd75RbzS1ed54G1LkBUHQVHQKqhMkhgbmJbZRkrgZw4koxb5JaHWkY4ALHY2grBGRjaDMzQLcgJvLJuZZvRcEL,xpub68NZiKmJWnxxS6aaHmn81bvJeTESw724CRDs6HbuccFQN9Ku14VQrADWgqbhhTHBaohPX4CjNLf9fq9MYo6oDaPPLPxSb7gwQN3ih19Zm4Y)/0/*))
    • 512068983d461174afc90c26f3b2821d8a9ced9534586a756763b68371a404635cc8
    • 5120368e2d864115181bdc8bb5dc8684be8d0760d5c33315570d71a21afce4afd43e
    • 512097a1e6270b33ad85744677418bae5f59ea9136027223bc6e282c47c167b471d5
Invalid descriptors

  • musig() is not allowed in pk(): pk(musig(02f9308a019258c31049344f85f89d5229b531c845836f99b08601f113bce036f9,03dff1d77f2a671c5f36183726db2341be58feae1da2deced843240f7b502ba659,023590a94e768f8e1815c2f24b4d80a8e3149316c3518ce7b7ad338368d038ca66))
  • musig() is not allowed in pkh(): pkh(musig(02f9308a019258c31049344f85f89d5229b531c845836f99b08601f113bce036f9,03dff1d77f2a671c5f36183726db2341be58feae1da2deced843240f7b502ba659,023590a94e768f8e1815c2f24b4d80a8e3149316c3518ce7b7ad338368d038ca66))
  • musig() is not allowed in wpkh(): wpkh(musig(02f9308a019258c31049344f85f89d5229b531c845836f99b08601f113bce036f9,03dff1d77f2a671c5f36183726db2341be58feae1da2deced843240f7b502ba659,023590a94e768f8e1815c2f24b4d80a8e3149316c3518ce7b7ad338368d038ca66))
  • musig() is not allowed in combo(): combo(musig(02f9308a019258c31049344f85f89d5229b531c845836f99b08601f113bce036f9,03dff1d77f2a671c5f36183726db2341be58feae1da2deced843240f7b502ba659,023590a94e768f8e1815c2f24b4d80a8e3149316c3518ce7b7ad338368d038ca66))
  • musig() is not allowed in sh(wpkh()): sh(wpkh(musig(02f9308a019258c31049344f85f89d5229b531c845836f99b08601f113bce036f9,03dff1d77f2a671c5f36183726db2341be58feae1da2deced843240f7b502ba659,023590a94e768f8e1815c2f24b4d80a8e3149316c3518ce7b7ad338368d038ca66)))
  • musig() is not allowed in sh(wsh()): sh(wsh(pk(musig(02f9308a019258c31049344f85f89d5229b531c845836f99b08601f113bce036f9,03dff1d77f2a671c5f36183726db2341be58feae1da2deced843240f7b502ba659,023590a94e768f8e1815c2f24b4d80a8e3149316c3518ce7b7ad338368d038ca66))))
  • musig() is not allowed in wsh(): wsh(musig(02f9308a019258c31049344f85f89d5229b531c845836f99b08601f113bce036f9,03dff1d77f2a671c5f36183726db2341be58feae1da2deced843240f7b502ba659,023590a94e768f8e1815c2f24b4d80a8e3149316c3518ce7b7ad338368d038ca66))
  • musig() is not allowed in sh(): sh(musig(02f9308a019258c31049344f85f89d5229b531c845836f99b08601f113bce036f9,03dff1d77f2a671c5f36183726db2341be58feae1da2deced843240f7b502ba659,023590a94e768f8e1815c2f24b4d80a8e3149316c3518ce7b7ad338368d038ca66))
  • Ranged musig() requires all participants to be xpubs: tr(musig(02f9308a019258c31049344f85f89d5229b531c845836f99b08601f113bce036f9,03dff1d77f2a671c5f36183726db2341be58feae1da2deced843240f7b502ba659,023590a94e768f8e1815c2f24b4d80a8e3149316c3518ce7b7ad338368d038ca66)/0/0)
  • Cannot have ranged participants if musig() is also ranged: tr(musig(xpub6ERApfZwUNrhLCkDtcHTcxd75RbzS1ed54G1LkBUHQVHQKqhMkhgbmJbZRkrgZw4koxb5JaHWkY4ALHY2grBGRjaDMzQLcgJvLJuZZvRcEL/*,xpub68NZiKmJWnxxS6aaHmn81bvJeTESw724CRDs6HbuccFQN9Ku14VQrADWgqbhhTHBaohPX4CjNLf9fq9MYo6oDaPPLPxSb7gwQN3ih19Zm4Y)/0/*)
  • musig() cannot have hardened derivation steps: tr(musig(xpub6ERApfZwUNrhLCkDtcHTcxd75RbzS1ed54G1LkBUHQVHQKqhMkhgbmJbZRkrgZw4koxb5JaHWkY4ALHY2grBGRjaDMzQLcgJvLJuZZvRcEL,xpub68NZiKmJWnxxS6aaHmn81bvJeTESw724CRDs6HbuccFQN9Ku14VQrADWgqbhhTHBaohPX4CjNLf9fq9MYo6oDaPPLPxSb7gwQN3ih19Zm4Y)/0h/*)
  • musig() cannot have hardened child derivation: tr(musig(xpub6ERApfZwUNrhLCkDtcHTcxd75RbzS1ed54G1LkBUHQVHQKqhMkhgbmJbZRkrgZw4koxb5JaHWkY4ALHY2grBGRjaDMzQLcgJvLJuZZvRcEL,xpub68NZiKmJWnxxS6aaHmn81bvJeTESw724CRDs6HbuccFQN9Ku14VQrADWgqbhhTHBaohPX4CjNLf9fq9MYo6oDaPPLPxSb7gwQN3ih19Zm4Y)/0/*h)

Backwards Compatibility

musig() expressions use the format and general operation specified in BIP 380. As these are a set of wholly new expressions, they are not compatible with any implementation. However the keys are produced using a standard process so existing software are likely to be familiar with them.

Rationale

  1. ^ Why must the keys be sorted prior to aggregation? Although the descriptor's written form sets an order for the keys that could be used for aggregation, the order should not matter as MuSig2 philosophically operates over a set of keys, with the order merely being an implementation detail in aggregation itself. Requiring sorting of keys prior to aggregation enforces this philosophy as keys can be written in the descriptor in any order with the end result still being the same. Furthermore, this aids with recovery where the descriptor was not backed up as users will not need to also have backed up, or guess, the correct order of keys.

Reference Implementation

TBD

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Pieter Wuille, Andrew Poelstra, Sanket Kanjalkar, Salvatore Ingala, and all others who participated in discussions on this topic.